DOI: 10.1007/s00259-018-3947-xPages: 846-859

EANM guidelines for radionuclide therapy of bone metastases with beta-emitting radionuclides

1. Maria Sklodowska Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology Department

2. University Hospital Essen, Clinic for Nuclear Medicine

3. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology

4. Tirocenter Nuclear Medicine Center

5. University Hospital USK, Saarland University, Nuclear Medicine

6. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging Section

7. University Hospital San Pedro and Centre for Biomedical Research of La Rioja (CIBIR), Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Radiology) and Nuclear Medicine

8. Kepler University Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology

9. Medical University of Innsbruck, University Clinic of Nuclear Medicine

Correspondence to:
Roberto C. Delgado-Bolton



The skeleton is the most common metastatic site in patients with advanced cancer. Pain is a major healthcare problem in patients with bone metastases. Bone-seeking radionuclides that selectively accumulate in the bone are used to treat cancer-induced bone pain and to prolong survival in selected groups of cancer patients. The goals of these guidelines are to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in: (a) evaluating patients who might be candidates for radionuclide treatment of bone metastases using beta-emitting radionuclides such as strontium-89 (89Sr), samarium-153 (153Sm) lexidronam (153Sm-EDTMP), and phosphorus-32 (32P) sodium phosphate; (b) performing the treatments; and ©) understanding and evaluating the treatment outcome and side effects.

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  • Accepted: Jan 11, 2018
  • Online: Feb 16, 2018

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