DOI: 10.1007/s00259-018-4171-4Pages: 238-250

FDG PET/CT for assessing tumour response to immunotherapy

1. Caen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department

2. Normandie University

3. Normandie University, INSERM 1086 ANTICIPE

4. EANM Oncology Committee

5. Peter MacCallum Cancer, Centre for Molecular Imaging, Department of Cancer Imaging

6. University of Melbourne, Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology

7. Institut Curie, Department of Medical Oncology

8. INSERM U900 Research Unit

9. University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Department of Medical Oncology

10. Università di Bologna, Nuclear Medicine, Policlinico S. Orsola

11. Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department

Correspondence to:
Nicolas Aide



This paper follows the immunotherapy symposium held during the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) 2017 Annual Congress. The biological basis of the immune checkpoint inhibitors and the drugs most frequently used for the treatment of solid tumours are reviewed. The issues of pseudoprogression (frequency, timeline), hyperprogression and immune-related side effects are discussed, as well as their implications for patient management. A review of the recent literature on the use of FDG PET for assessment of immunotherapy is presented, and recommendations are provided for assessing tumour response and reporting immune-related side effects with FDG PET based on published data and experts’ experience. Representative clinical cases are also discussed.

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  • Accepted: Sep 17, 2018
  • Online: Oct 5, 2018

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