We aimed to assess the positivity, distribution, quantitative degree of vessel inflammation, and clinical characteristics of IgG4-related aortitis/periarteritis and periarteritis (IgG4-aortitis), and to examine the difference in these characteristics between cases with and without IgG4-aortitis, using fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) co-registered with contrast-enhanced CT (CECT).
We retrospectively evaluated 37 patients with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) who underwent both FDG-PET/CT and CECT. The arterial SUVmax and its value normalized to the background venous blood pool (BP)—the target-to-background ratio (TBR) in the entire aorta and the major first branches—were measured. Active vascular inflammation was considered in cases with a higher FDG uptake than BP and a thickened arterial wall (>2 mm).Results
Fifteen (41%) patients exhibited IgG4-aortitis. Most patients (80%) showed multiple region involvement. The entire aorta, including the major first branches, were involved, typically showing a thickened wall and high FDG uptakes. The most common site was the iliac arteries (35%), followed by the infrarenal abdominal aorta (33%), thoracic aorta (8%), first branches of the thoracic aorta (8%), suprarenal abdominal aorta (6%), and the first branches of the abdominal aorta (5%). The IgG4-aortitis-positive vessel regions were thickened, with an average maximal wall thickness of 6.3 ± 2.9 mm. The SUVmax and TBR values were significantly higher in the IgG4-aortitis-positive regions (median 3.7 [1.6–5.5] and 2.1 [1.4–3.7], respectively) than in the IgG4-aortitis-negative regions (median 2.1 [1.2–3.7] and 1.3 [0.9–2.3], respectively; p < 0.0001). The IgG4-aortitis-positive group patients were older (69.5 ± 6.0 vs. 63.3 ± 12.6 years, respectively) and had a higher male predominance (80 vs. 55%, respectively) than the negative group, although the differences were not significant (p = 0.17 and p = 0.06, respectively).Conclusions
We investigated the image characteristics of IgG4-aortitis. The entire aorta and major branches can be involved with more than 2-fold higher FDG uptake than the venous background pool, and with wall thickening. The most common involved site is the iliac arteries, followed by the infrarenal abdominal aorta.
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