DOI: 10.1186/s13550-018-0409-1Pages: 1-4

18F-fluoromisonidazole predicts evofosfamide uptake in pancreatic tumor model

1. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics

2. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology

Correspondence to:
Milan Grkovski
Tel: 212-639-2480




Quantitative imaging can facilitate patient stratification in clinical trials. The hypoxia-activated prodrug evofosfamide recently failed a phase III trial in pancreatic cancer. However, the study did not attempt to select for patients with hypoxic tumors. We tested the ability of 18F-fluoromisonidazole to predict evofosfamide uptake in an orthotopic xenograft model (BxPC3).


Two forms of evofosfamide were used: (1) labeled on the active moiety (3H) and (2) on the hypoxia targeting nitroimidazole group (14C). Tumor uptake of evofosfamide and 18F-fluoromisonidazole was counted ex vivo. Autoradiography of 14C and 18F coupled with pimonidazole immunohistochemistry revealed the spatial distributions of prodrug, radiotracer, and hypoxia.


There was significant individual variation in 18F-fluoromisonidazole uptake, and a significant correlation between normalized 18F-fluoromisonidazole and both 3H-labeled and 14C-labeled evofosfamide. 18F-fluoromisonidazole and 14C-evofosfamide both localized in hypoxic regions as identified by pimonidazole.


18F-fluoromisonidazole predicts evofosfamide uptake in a preclinical pancreatic tumor model.

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  • Accepted: Jun 6, 2018
  • Online: Jun 18, 2018

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