DOI: 10.1186/s13550-018-0415-3Pages: 1-11

[18F]Fluciclovine PET discrimination between high- and low-grade gliomas

1. Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences

2. Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology

3. Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Foster School of Medicine, Department of Radiology

4. Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery

5. Mount Sinai Beth Israel, Department of Neurosurgery

6. Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Pathology

7. City of Hope National Medical Center, Department of Information Sciences

Correspondence to:
Mark M. Goodman
Tel: 404-727-9366
Email: mgoodma@emory.edu

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Abstract

Background

The ability to accurately and non-invasively distinguish high-grade glioma from low-grade glioma remains a challenge despite advances in molecular and magnetic resonance imaging. We investigated the ability of fluciclovine (18F) PET as a means to identify and distinguish these lesions in patients with known gliomas and to correlate uptake with Ki-67.

Results

Sixteen patients with a total of 18 newly diagnosed low-grade gliomas (n = 6) and high grade gliomas (n = 12) underwent fluciclovine PET imaging after histopathologic assessment. Fluciclovine PET analysis comprised tumor SUVmax and SUVmean, as well as metabolic tumor thresholds (1.3*, 1.6*, 1.9*) to normal brain background (TBmax, and TBmean). Comparison was additionally made to the proliferative status of the tumor as indicated by Ki-67 values.

Fluciclovine uptake greater than normal brain parenchyma was found in all lesions studied. Time activity curves demonstrated statistically apparent flattening of the curves for both high-grade gliomas and low-grade gliomas starting 30 min after injection, suggesting an influx/efflux equilibrium. The best semiquantitative metric in discriminating HGG from LGG was obtained utilizing a metabolic 1 tumor threshold of 1.3* contralateral normal brain parenchyma uptake to create a tumor: background (TBmean1.3) cutoff of 2.15 with an overall sensitivity of 97.5% and specificity of 95.5%. Additionally, using a SUVmax > 4.3 cutoff gave a sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 97.5%. Tumor SUVmean and tumor SUVmax as a ratio to mean normal contralateral brain were both found to be less relevant predictors of tumor grade. Both SUVmax (R = 0.71, p = 0.0227) and TBmean (TBmean1.3: R = 0.81, p = 0.00081) had a high correlation with the tumor proliferative index Ki-67.

Conclusions

Fluciclovine PET produces high-contrast images between both low-grade and high grade gliomas and normal brain by visual and semiquantitative analysis. Fluciclovine PET appears to discriminate between low-grade glioma and high-grade glioma, but must be validated with a larger sample size.

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  • Accepted: Jun 27, 2018
  • Online: Jul 25, 2018

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