DOI: 10.1186/s40658-017-0187-2Pages: 1-14

Ejection fraction in myocardial perfusion imaging assessed with a dynamic phantom: comparison between IQ-SPECT and LEHR

1. University of Helsinki, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki University Hospital

2. University of Helsinki, Department of Physics

3. University of Helsinki, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, Helsinki University Hospital

4. Tampere University Hospital, Radiation Therapy Unit of Lahti

Correspondence to:
Eero Hippeläinen
Tel: +358 44 5167037




Developments in single photon emission tomography instrumentation and reconstruction methods present a potential for decreasing acquisition times. One of such recent options for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is IQ-SPECT. This study was motivated by the inconsistency in the reported ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular (LV) volume results between IQ-SPECT and more conventional low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) collimation protocols. IQ-SPECT and LEHR quantitative results were compared while the equivalent number of iterations (EI) was varied. The end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic volumes (ESV) and the derived EF values were investigated.

A dynamic heart phantom was used to produce repeatable ESVs, EDVs and EFs. Phantom performance was verified by comparing the set EF values to those measured from a gated multi-slice X-ray computed tomography (CT) scan (EFTrue). The phantom with an EF setting of 45, 55, 65 and 70% was imaged with both IQ-SPECT and LEHR protocols. The data were reconstructed with different EI, and two commonly used clinical myocardium delineation software were used to evaluate the LV volumes.


The CT verification showed that the phantom EF settings were repeatable and accurate with the EFTrue being within 1% point from the manufacture’s nominal value. Depending on EI both MPI protocols can be made to produce correct EF estimates, but IQ-SPECT protocol produced on average 41 and 42% smaller EDV and ESV when compared to the phantom’s volumes, while LEHR protocol underestimated volumes by 24 and 21%, respectively. The volume results were largely similar between the delineation methods used.


The reconstruction parameters can greatly affect the volume estimates obtained from perfusion studies. IQ-SPECT produces systematically smaller LV volumes than the conventional LEHR MPI protocol. The volume estimates are also software dependent.

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  • Accepted: Jun 27, 2017
  • Online: Jul 19, 2017

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