DOI: 10.1186/s40658-018-0225-8Pages: 1-15

A deep learning approach for 18F-FDG PET attenuation correction

1. University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Departments of Radiology

2. University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Medical Physics

3. Wisconsin Institutes for Medical Research, Departments of Radiology

Correspondence to:
Fang Liu
Tel: 612-222-9728
Email: leoliuf@gmail.com

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Abstract

Background

To develop and evaluate the feasibility of a data-driven deep learning approach (deepAC) for positron-emission tomography (PET) image attenuation correction without anatomical imaging. A PET attenuation correction pipeline was developed utilizing deep learning to generate continuously valued pseudo-computed tomography (CT) images from uncorrected 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET images. A deep convolutional encoder-decoder network was trained to identify tissue contrast in volumetric uncorrected PET images co-registered to CT data. A set of 100 retrospective 3D FDG PET head images was used to train the model. The model was evaluated in another 28 patients by comparing the generated pseudo-CT to the acquired CT using Dice coefficient and mean absolute error (MAE) and finally by comparing reconstructed PET images using the pseudo-CT and acquired CT for attenuation correction. Paired-sample t tests were used for statistical analysis to compare PET reconstruction error using deepAC with CT-based attenuation correction.

Results

deepAC produced pseudo-CTs with Dice coefficients of 0.80 ± 0.02 for air, 0.94 ± 0.01 for soft tissue, and 0.75 ± 0.03 for bone and MAE of 111 ± 16 HU relative to the PET/CT dataset. deepAC provides quantitatively accurate 18F-FDG PET results with average errors of less than 1% in most brain regions.

Conclusions

We have developed an automated approach (deepAC) that allows generation of a continuously valued pseudo-CT from a single 18F-FDG non-attenuation-corrected (NAC) PET image and evaluated it in PET/CT brain imaging.

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  • Accepted: Aug 2, 2018
  • Online: Nov 12, 2018

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